Inflammation in metabolically healthy and metabolically abnormal adolescents: The HELENA study.
BACKGROUND AND AIMS:
Inflammation may influence the cardio-metabolic profile which relates with the risk of chronic diseases. This study aimed to assess the inflammatory status by metabolic health (MH)/body mass index (BMI) category and to assess how inflammatory markers can predict the cardio-metabolic profile in European adolescents, considering BMI.
METHODS AND RESULTS:
A total of 659 adolescents (295 boys) from a cross-sectional European study were included. Adolescents were classified by metabolic health based on age- and sex-specific cut-off points for glucose, blood pressure, triglycerides, high density cholesterol and BMI. C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL-6), complement factors (C3, C4) and cell adhesion molecules were assessed.
Metabolically abnormal (MA) adolescents had higher values of C3 (p < 0.001) and C4 (p = 0.032) compared to those metabolically healthy (MHy). C3 concentrations significantly increased with the deterioration of the metabolic health and BMI (p < 0.001). Adolescents with higher values of CRP had higher probability of being in the overweight/obese-MH group than those allocated in other categories. Finally, high C3 and C4 concentrations increased the probability of having an unfavorable metabolic/BMI status.
Metabolic/BMI status and inflammatory biomarkers are associated, being the CRP, C3 and C4 the most related inflammatory markers with this condition. C3 and C4 were associated with the cardio-metabolic health consistently.
Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.