Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium
Contributors: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; Health and Medicine Division; Food and Nutrition Board; Committee to Review the Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium; Virginia A. Stallings, Meghan Harrison, and Maria Oria, Editors
A new report from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine reviews current evidence and updates intake recommendations known as the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for sodium and potassium that were established in 2005. Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium revises the Adequate Intakes (AIs), which are the best estimate of intakes assumed to be adequate in apparently healthy individuals. The report reaffirms the sodium AI for individuals ages 14-50, decreases the sodium AIs for children age 1-13, increases the sodium AIs for adults ages 51 and older, and decreases the potassium AIs for individuals age 1 and older. The report also uses guidance from a 2017 National Academies report to introduce the first DRI specific to chronic disease risk reduction.
Sodium and potassium are interrelated, essential nutrients that play vital functional roles in the body, including being important for nerve signal transmission, muscle contraction, and fluid balance. Both nutrients have been linked to risk of chronic disease, particularly cardiovascular disease, the report says. Possible associations between sodium intake with other adverse health outcomes have also been suggested. The physiological essentiality of sodium and potassium, in conjunction with their relationships to adverse health effects including chronic disease risk, called for a new approach to establishing DRIs.