Could Duodenal Molecular Mechanisms be Involved in the Hypocholesterolemic Effect of Silicon Used as Functional Ingredient in Late-Stage Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus?”
Autores: Marina Hernández-Martín,Aránzazu Bocanegra,Rocío Redondo-Castillejo,Adrián Macho-González,Francisco J. Sánchez-Muniz,Juana Benedí,Sara Bastida,Rosa A. García-Fernández,Alba Garcimartín,M. Elvira López-Oliva
Hypercholesterolemia increases the risk of mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), especially in the late-stage. Consumption of bioactive compounds as functional ingredients would help achieve therapeutic goals for cholesterolemia. Silicon has demonstrated a hypocholesterolemic effect and the ability to reduce fat digestion. However, it is unclear whether silicon exerts such effect in late-stage T2DM and the intestinal mechanisms involved.
Methods and Results
Three groups of eight rats were included: early-stage T2DM control (ED); late-stage T2DM (LD); and the LD group which fed silicon-enriched meat (LD-Si) once the rats were diabetic. Morphological alterations of the duodenal mucosa, and levels of markers involved in cholesterol absorption and excretion, beside cholesterolemia, and fecal excretion were assayed. Silicon included as a functional ingredient significantly reduced cholesterolemia in part due to: 1) reducing cholesterol intestinal absorption by decreasing the absorptive area and Acetyl-Coenzyme A acetyltransferase-2 (ACAT2) levels; and 2) increasing cholesterol excretion to the lumen by induction of the liver X receptor (LXR) and consequent increase of adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter G5/8.
These results provide insight into the intestinal molecular mechanisms by which silicon reduces cholesterolemia and highlights the efficacy of the consumption of silicon-enriched functional foods in late-stage T2DM.
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