Proanthocyanidins: Impact on Gut Microbiota and Intestinal Action Mechanisms in the Prevention and Treatment of Metabolic Syndrome
Abstract: The metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of risk factors, such as central obesity, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and arterial hypertension, which increase the probability of causing premature mortality. The consumption of high-fat diets (HFD), normally referred to high-saturated fat diets, is a major driver of the rising incidence of MS. In fact, the altered interplay between HFD, microbiome, and the intestinal barrier is being considered as a possible origin of MS. Consumption of proanthocyanidins (PAs) has a beneficial effect against the metabolic disturbances in MS. However, there are no conclusive results in the literature about the efficacy of PAs in improving MS. This review allows a comprehensive validation of the diverse effects of the PAs on the intestinal dysfunction in HFD-induced MS, differentiating between preventive and therapeutic actions. Special emphasis is placed on the impact of PAs on the gut microbiota, providing a system to facilitate comparison between the studies. PAs can modulate the microbiome toward a healthy profile and strength barrier integrity. Nevertheless, to date, published clinical trials to verify preclinical findings are scarce. Finally, the preventive consumption of PAs in MS-associated dysbiosis and intestinal dysfunction induced by HFD seems more successful than the treatment strategy.
Redondo-Castillejo, R.; Garcimartín, A.; Hernández-Martín, M.; López-Oliva, M.E.; Bocanegra, A.; Macho-González, A.; Bastida, S.; Benedí, J.; Sánchez-Muniz, F.J. Proanthocyanidins: Impact on Gut Microbiota and Intestinal Action Mechanisms in the Prevention and Treatment of Metabolic Syndrome. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24, 5369. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24065369
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